Image and video hosting by TinyPic

Tux's Links

This is a list of linux weblinks. Let me know if you know of more (it'll take a few months, since I have a backlog). Also, if any webpage seems inaccurate or uses foul language, please email me and I'll take them off.

New License: This webpage is now left-copyright, i.e., copyright is GPLv2. In a nutshell, you are free to copy and modify, but you must make any improvement available (preferably on the internet). For more, read

If you want your page off or have any comments, email me at shengchieh ["AT"] linuxmail [period] org . Be warned: I do not see this email often. Please be patient.

Feel free to bookmark this page. If you wish to link to this page from your website, you can add the following lines to your webpage.

<a href="">
<img src=""
width="200" height="100" border="0"></a>
to your webpage. Those lines will produce the same logos at the top of this webpage and the picture will link to this page. [1]

DISCLAIMER: I do NOT claim the below websites are 100% accurate. Use their informations at your own risk.


Directories (have multiple things) (directory of linux distros + various linux resources) (Linux Users & Developer) (linux, BSD family, etc...) (The Linux Kernel Archives) (multi-OS; programming, etc)

Organizations (The Open Group) (GNU) (Linux Foundation) (Linaro; open source for ARM) (FSFLA)


Introduction (Help! Finding Community Linux Support ; 4/2/10) (How to be Your Own Linux Tech Support; 3/5/09) (A Newbie’s Getting Started Guide to Linux; 5/12/09) (Introduction to Linux; 6/6/08) (LinuxPitstop)

Courses (Open CourseWare for Linux Geeks: 50+ Resources)


HowTo/Tutorial (HowtoForge) (ibiblio's linux archive) (Tips for Linux Explorers) (Linux answers to common problems) (Linuxtopia) (advanced topics) (advanced topics) (advanced topics) (YouTube Videos With Linux: Part 1) (YouTube Videos With Linux: Part 2) (YouTube Videos With Linux: Part 3) (unix tutorials) (How Linux works: the ultimate guide; 5/21/10) (Weekend Project: Linux For Beginners/ 1/11/13) (Top 10 Tips For Beginning Linux; 1/24/14) (server)

Reference (Quick Reference Guides / Cheat Sheets Collection; 1/19/07) (Top 10 Best Cheat Sheets and Tutorials for Linux / UNIX Commands; 11/5/08) (Cheat Sheet collection; 6/17/11)

Wiki (kernel comparison: linux vs window)

Directory (including howto/tutorial) (developer)


Books and eBooks (IMHO, books go out of date fast. Read free online ebooks first before spending money) (online: list of free linux books) (various free online Floss Manuals) (long list on online books) (12 More Enlightening Free Linux Books) (The Linux Cookbook, Second Edition) (online; The Linux Cookbook; 2001 edition) (online; Rute User's Tutorial and Exposition; edition 1.0.0) (Test Driving Linux; free online book; 2005) (Linux + Study Guide; 2009 4th edition) (online: Introduction to Linux; A Hands on Guide; 2010) (UNIX and Linux System Administration Handbook (4th Edition); 2010) (Linux in a Nutshell; 2009 6th edition) (The Linux Programming Interface: A Linux and UNIX System Programming Handbook; 2010 1st edition) (Practical Guide to Linux Commands, Editors, and Shell Programming, A; 2009 2nd edition) (Linux All-in-One For Dummies; 2010 4th edition) (Linux Command Line and Shell Scripting Bible; 2011 2nd edition) (free ebook: Linux from Scratch) (list of GIMP books) (online: Bash Guide for Beginners; updated regularly) (IT eBooks; free programming ebooks) (GitHub: free-programming-books) (Free FOSS Books: Our Latest Collection of Online Guides; 5/4/12) (12 Remarkable Free Shell Scripting Books) (14 Excellent Free LaTeX Books) (free ebooks)

Blog (A New User Guide to Linux Communities; 2/6/08) (20 Reasons Why You Should Switch To Linux!; 10/15/13) (How non-programmers can contribute to open source projects; 10/24/13) (Fact or Fiction? Top 8 Linux Myths Debunked; 9/9/10) (Warning: Don't Download Software From SourceForge If You Can Help It; 6/8/15)

BSD (FAQ: BSD; Had history been slightly different, you'd be reading FreeBSD Voice today...)

Cloud (Appirio's cloud ecosystem map)

Colleges (US colleges with Linux courses and degree programs; 3/3/13)

Credit Card>


Forums (Linux Forums Etiquette; 8/18/12) (New to Linux? Here's Your Hitchhiker's Guide to Linux Forum Galaxy!; 2/11/11) (How To Ask Questions The Smart Way) (linuxwaves via yahoo tech forum) (mailing lists) (Linux Desktop Reviews) (KDE) (XFCE) (libreoffice) ( (video) (media) (hardware) (Linux, Window, Unix, System sub-forums, etc) (developers) (linux, window, macs, programming, etc) (linux, window, audio, HDTV, etc) (java)> Forums (various mailing list including linux & BSD)

For applications, I put the respective forums in the software - howto section. For distros, I put the respective forums in the distribution list. If you do not see a forum/mailing list for a particular distro or application, check their main site. Most distros and many applications have their own forum, mailing list, wiki, and/or documentation.

Game (Gaming on Linux)

History (Distributions; A Brief History; 8/1/10) (The daemon, the gnu, and the penguin by Dr. Peter H. Salus; October 20 2008) (Interactive Timeline of the History of Linux; 3/14/14) (Unix History)

Jobs (employment) ( Job Board) ( Job Board)

License (Licensing 101 for Open Source Projects--Pick a License; 7/16/09) (Choosing an OSS license doesn't need to be scary)

News (including magazines) (server) (FOSSwire; blog) (Commercial; various linux magazines)

Privacy (See privacy in Software HowTo and Others) (Tor: Part 1 - Is it for me?; 9/6/13) (Tor: Part 3 - Becoming An Onion; hunt for part 2; 9/13/13)

Secure Boot (Linux Has Not Won, Microsoft is as Dangerous as Ever, Fie on Secure Boot; 12/4/12)

Security (Virus) (Do I Need an AntiVirus Program on Linux?) (Note to new Linux users: No antivirus needed) (GNU/Linux Security: Linux House vs Microsoft House; 10/23/09) (Setting the record straight on sudo; 4/5/10) (Meet Linux Viruses; 7/26/12) (Linux Non Root Exploits - 4 Ways In which Even A Normal User Can Cause Real Damage To Your Linux System; 6/6/13) (Linux and botnets: It's not Linux's fault!; 3/20/14) (Linux Malware And Antivirus; 6/12/14)

Speech (HTML Speech Incubator Group)

Support (commercial; Pantek: Expert IT Services for Linux and Open Source)

Users Group (Malta)

Unix (see BSD too) (HTG Explains: What's the Difference Between Linux and BSD?; 6/9/14) (Linux Vs Unix: The Crucial Differences That Matter To Linux Professionals; 11/18/14)
Window Equivalent (alternativeTo) (Alternatives of 13 Most Commonly Used Windows Applications for Linux; 5/29/13)

Hardware HowTo

Administration (50 UNIX / Linux Sysadmin Tutorials; 12/25/10) (LINUX NEWBIE ADMINISTRATOR GUIDE) (Linux system administration part 1; 6/24/14) (Linux system administration part 2; 6/28/14)

Backups (rsync; 2004) (rsync) (Linux Complete Backup and Recovery HOWTO; 2006) (Backup and Restore Procedures; date???) (Battery University)

Battery (Battery University) (Gain more battery life from your Linux-based laptop with powertop; 9/09) (Make your Linux netbook battery last longer; 1/8/10) (How to Maximize the Battery Life on Your Linux Laptop; 10/18/10) (How to Maximize the Battery Life on Your Linux Laptop; 10/18/10) (PowerTop - Monitors Total Power Usage and Improve Linux Laptop Battery Life; 10/7/16) (How To Check Laptop Battery Status In Terminal In Linux; 12/8/16)

Benchmarking ( (Linux/Unix nbench) (Linux Benchmark Notes) (Linux Kernel Performance)

BIOS (Learn Linux, 101: Configure hardware settings; 10/28/16)

Bluetooth> (An Introduction to Bluetooth Programming) (BlueZ Official Linux Bluetooth protocol stack) ([debian] HOWTO BluetoothMouse)

Boot (Stubborn Tech Problem Solving; 9/3/10)

Boot Loader (GNU GRUB Manual) (How to delete boot managers from a UEFI boot menu; 6/2/14)

CD/DVD Burning (Burning a CD) (Coasterless DVD Burning) (Video Media Guides) (Using Brasero for data backup and ISO burning; 1/26/10)

Clean (3 Apps That Keep Linux Squeaky Clean; 10/13/10)

Clock (How to keep your Linux system clock accurate; 10/7/15)

Clusters (beowolf)

Configuration (ACPI [Advanced Configuration & Power Interface])

Data Recovery (ReiserFS) (Recovering Deleted Files By Inode Number In Linux And Unix) (Reclaim Deleted Files and Repair Filesystems on Linux; 1/25/11)

Disk (Hard Drive) (5 ways to check your disk usage on Linux; 12/9/12) (How long do hard drives actually live for?) (How to Check and Monitor Hard Disk Health on Linux with Smartmontools; 4/14/15) (How long do disk drives last?; 11/12/13) (How to Check Bad Sectors or Bad Blocks on Hard Disk in Linux; 10/26/16)

Drivers (modem; Computer Peripheral & Multimedia ICs) (graphics, audio, network, USB, printers, etc)

Email (How a mail server works; 1/6/14)

Fax (HylaFAX)

Games (Linux Gamers' FAQ)

Graphics (XFree86) (OpenGL) (DRI Beginner's Guide) (Documentation for XFree86® version 4.8.0) (Troubleshooting Intel graphics performance issues)

Hardware (Open Compute Project; open hardware)

Hardware Compatibility (Linux Hardware Compatibility Lists) (general; 5/22/07) (general; old???)
Red Hat

Hardware info (Show System/Hardware Information in Linux; 3/23/15) (How to interpret CPU load on Linux; 5/19/14) (16 commands to check hardware information on Linux; 4/8/14) (8 commads to check cpu information on Linux; 3/16/14) (Inxi is an amazing tool to check hardware information on Linux; 1/8/14) (Discovering and Monitoring Hardware in Linux; 8/17/12) (How To Get Hardware Information In Linux; 7/27/11) (How to Gather Hardware Information in Linux 5/12/11)


Job (linux) (linuxcareers)

Icon (Manpage of idesk) (Mangage of ideskrc)

Kernel (The Linux Kernel vs Commercial kernels; 12/20/11) (The Linux Kernel: An Explanation In Layman's Terms; 6/3/14)


Log files (An introduction to Linux log files; 11/7/16)

Memory (How to find which process is eating RAM in Linux; 12/7/10) (A hitchhikers guide to troubleshooting linux memory usage; 6/2/14) (Delete clean cache to free up memory on your slow Linux server, VPS; 10/28/14)

Modem (problems may occur due to WinModem) (Linux Winmodem Support) (The Winmodems-and-Linux HOWTO; 2001) (Linmodems support) -> drivers -> Conexant (Conexant) (AOL) (PPP [2002]) (minicom manpage) (Linux / UNIX minicom Serial Communication Program) -> SUPPORTED.CARDS (PCMCIA)

Motherboard (including Raspberry Pi) (Fritzing; open-source hardware initiative) (What is Arduino? Learn About This Open-Source Electronics Platform; 10/3/11) (Weekend Project: Learning Ins and Outs of Arduino; 1/13/12) (Raspberry Pi Complete Manual out now!; 4/1/14) (How to set up Raspberry Pi ; 4/23/12) (Hardware Hacks: Learning the Pi, DSLR hacking and the Cubieboard; 9/4/12) (Raspberry Pi tutorial: how to do more; 9/17/12) (Pi Crust; make your own add-on for Raspberry Pi) ( Everyday Linux User Guide To Setting Up The Raspberry PI; 12/31/12) (download from; Raspberry Pi Education Manual ; 1/3/13) (Pi Day special: 7 Raspberry Pi pieces [documentation links]; 3/14/15) (Raspberry Pi Zero W: The smart person's guide) (PandaBoard)

Mounting (Mounting File Systems Under Linux; 8/4/14)

Networking (Linux Networking) (8 Common Network Utilities Explained; 6/3/14)

NFS (Linux NFS Overview) (Linux NFS-HOWTO)

Partition (Linux Partition HOWTO; note ch 4.4 on swap size; 2005) (File System Primer; note ch 4 on file types; 2007)

Password (How to set password policy on Linux; 12/30/13)

Power (Power to the PC: How to Select a Computer Power Supply; 9/16/10) (Using Linux to Improve Energy Efficiency and Productivity; 8/22/11)

Server (Linux Commands for Beginning Server Administrators) (LAMP) (Apache) (Most Common Linux Server's Hardening Tips; 6/13)

Speed (increase) (Tales from responsivenessland: why Linux feels slow, and how to fix that) (bootup; CELF Technology/Project) (Slim Down and Speed Up Linux) (Speed Up Linux) (What's Bogging Down Your Linux PC? Tracking Down Resource Hogs; 7/21/09) (Make Linux faster and lighter; 10/30/09) (How to check CPU info on Linux;12/24/14)

Solid State Drive (How To Optimize Linux For SSDs; 6/24/14)

Sound (ALSA) (ALSA wiki) (Sound-HOWTO) (Sound in GNU/Linux) (Audio/Sound) (Intro. to Sound Prog. with ALSA) (Sound; MIDI Software For Linux) (aRts Handbook) (PulseAudio Tames the Linux Audio Zoo, Part 1) (PulseAudio Tames the Linux Audio Zoo, Part 2) (PulseAudio: The Perfect Setup) (PulseAudio wiki)

Storage (Serial ATA (SATA) for Linux)

Swap (SWAP Devices Explained: Do I Need One?; 1/6/14) (Do You Need A Swap Partition?; 2015) (8 Useful Commands to Monitor Swap Space Usage in Linux; 10/12/16)

Temperature (Keeping track of your PCs temperature in Linux; 8/6/10)

USB Drive Drives: Why, How-to, and Where At; 7/3/10) (Save a CD/DVD - Use a USB flash drive and dd) (Create Multiboot OS USB with Multisystem in Linux; 4/15)

Video (Troubleshooting a Video Adapter and Computer Monitor; 2009) (video editing)

Wallpaper (fluxbox)

Webcam (Webcams in Linux)

Wireless (Linux wireless LAN support; compatibility list) (NDISswrapper; download/docs/wiki/forums/help) (Linux WLAN FAQ; 2000) (Wireless LAN resources for Linux) (Prism2 USB 802.11b devices under Linux; 2003) (Wireless 802.11b on Linux) (Wireless 802.11b on Linux) (IEEE 802 standards) (Linux wireless LAN support) (DHCP) (How to Configure Wireless on Any Linux Desktop ; 11/10/10) (12/17/11) (Widening Your WiFi Network's Range; 2/16/12) (Tips for Using Public Wi-Fi Networks; 3/14) (How To Avoid Data Theft When Using Public Wi-Fi; 3/4/14) (Wi-Fi Security: Should You Use WPA2-AES, WPA2-TKIP, or Both?; 12/12/14) (Tips and Tricks to Get the Most out of Your Linux WiFi; 12/10/15) (The Best Wireless Router Reviews of 2015; 2/1/16)

USB (linux USB)


Graphics Board
(commercial; Zotac)

Motherboard (non-commercial; Arduino) (non-commercial; MinnowBoard) (commercial; parallel computing; Parallella) (commercial; SparkFun; [Arduino stuffs]) (commercial; Mouser Electronics; MinnowBoard distributor) (commercial; BeagleBoard) (commercial; PandaBoard ES) (commercial; Hummingbird robotics kit) (commercial; Pimoroni; sells pibow [raspberry pi cover]) (commercial; Coridium; PRO board); Olimex; various motherboard including A13 board, LIME, Arduino) (commercial; CompuLab) (commercial; ODROID) (commercial; Arm9board) (commercial; AAEON USA) (commercial; Axiomtek) (Intel's open-source Galileo computer on sale for $69.90; 11/1/13) (commercial; MYIR) (commercial; AAEON Technology, Inc; tablet, embeddee) (commercial; Gumstix; various boards including pepper board) -> (commercial; Acrosser; Single Board Computer) (commercial; Artila Electronics) (commercial; Arm9board) (commercial; C.H.I.P.; include whole mini-computer) (List of single-board computers [wikipedia])

Robot http://alphalem.cdeom/ (commercial; Alphalem)

Software HowTo

Accounting (non-commercial: GNUcash; docs) (non-commercial: GNUcash; docs)

Archive (5 Best Command Line Archive Tools for Linux - Part 1; 6/1/14)

Browsers (firefox keyboard shortcuts) (MultiOS Browser Test) (shockwave and flash test) (firefox cheat sheet) (list of links; mozilla bookmarks) (Anonymous Web Browsing) (3 Tweaks to Speed Up Firefox 3 and Free Memory) (Speed up Firefox with tmpfs) (Speed up Firefox by mounting the profile in tmpfs) (Easily Fix Firefox 29 [change to look like FF 28]; 5/14) (How to turn the new Firefox 29 into the old Firefox; 4/26/14) (5 Opera Tips and Tricks; 8/10/09) (search - How to remove `t=canonical` from Firefox browser searches made on DuckDuckGo?; 3/14/15) (Firefox helps you cover your assets with latest Tracking Protection feature; 4/10/15) (Tested: How Flash destroys your browser's performance; 8/7/15) (firefox; About:config) (Stopping automatic reload of a page (on SM); 5/11/06)
) (An Introduction to Vivaldi Browser on Linux; 9/6/16) (opera; key shortcut) (opera help)

CD/DVD Burner (Nero Linux 4 - Never Knew Nero had a Linux Version!; 10/24/10)

Children (How to Configure Linux for Children; 7/21/10)

Compiling (Compile Programs From Source in Linux) (Installing software from source in Linux) (Compiling Software Packages; 2003);action=display;category=Work (Compile Software from Source Code) (compiling software)

Container (Life in a Post-Container World and Why Linux Will Play a Diminished Role; 9/15)

Cloud (Introduction to OpenStack; 10/13/13)

Data Recovery (; Undelete Files on Linux Systems7/22/13) (Data recovery from accidentally deleted files or crashed drives in Redhat, CentOS and Fedora Linux; 4/1/14)

Desktop Environment (Customize the Xfce menu) (PCLinuxOS magazine, but all about XFCE) (GNOME Wiki) (XFCE Wiki) (Linux: Xfce Keyboard Shortcuts)

Development (How To Get Started In Linux Development :Linuxcon; 9/20/13)

Directory Content Manager (Interactive Git Tutorials1/5/15)

Distro (How to Tell What Distro and Version of Linux You Are Running; 12/28/14)

Download (various)

Dual Boot (Linux & Window) (7 tips for dual-booting Linux distributions and Windows; 9/12/12)

ebook (Open source tools to prepare your ebooks for publication; 9/25/14)

Email (How To Encrypt Mails With SSL Certificates (S/MIME); 11/29/11) (Thunderbird Email Encryption with GnuPG2; 6/20/14) (How to Encrypt Email in Linux; 8/15/14) (Encrypt Your Email With GPG, Thunderbird, and Enigmail; 4/3/17) (An Everyday Linux User Guide To The Thunderbird Email Client; 11/2/16) (4 add-ons to improve your privacy on Thunderbird)

Flash Media (What's The Fastest Linux Filesystem On Cheap Flash Media?; 10/26/10)

File Permission

File Structures and Types (Linux Directory Structure Overview; 3/23/08) (Comparison of file systems) (Comparison of file systems; current) (Back to Basics: Unix File Permissions; 2/17/10) (Important Linux File Directories That Users Should Know About; 3/5/09) (Understanding the Linux Directory Layout; 2/5/09) (Learn Linux, 101: Find and place system files; 6/9/10) (Learn Linux, 101: Maintain the integrity of filesystems; 8/24/10) (Guide to disks and disk partitions in Linux; 9/18/11) (HTG Explains: The Linux Directory Structure Explained; 6/25/12) (Linux Directory Structure and Important Files Paths Explained; 9/16/13) (Linux Directory Structure (File System Hierarchy) Explained with Examples; 10/6/16)

File Transfer Protocol (FileZilla Wiki)

Flash (Fresh Player Plugin Sees New Release (Pepper Flash Wrapper For Firefox); 1/14/15)

Fragmentaion (HTG Explains: Why Linux Doesn’t Need Defragmenting; 5/30/12)

Graphics (GNUplot - docs) (GNUplot - docs) (GNUplot - docs) (GNUplot - docs)
(videopodcast tutorial of GIMP) (GIMP - docs) (GIMP - docs) (GIMP - docs) (GIMP - docs) (GIMP - docs) (GIMPshop - docs) (GimpTalk: docs, forum, arts, etc) ( tutorial, forum, downloads) (Exceptional new plugin to restore faded transparencies/photos; 2/28/09) (3 Gimp Plugins For Photographers; 8/21/09 (Free Tools for Getting Started with the Mighty GIMP Graphics Editor; 11/17/11) (30 Great tutorials for GIMP; 2011) (Free Tools for Getting Started with the Mighty GIMP Graphics Editor; 11/17/11) (GIMP Guides: How to Get the Most Out of a Great, Free Graphics Application; 2/28/13) (gimpology: HowTos) (alot of gIMP stuffs) (Inkscape; 4/6/10) (Inkscape tutorial) (31 Great Tutorial for Inkscape!)

Graphics card (An Introduction to OpenGL Programming; 11/12/14)

Kernel (Anatomy of the Linux kernel; 06 June 2007) (What is the Linux Kernel and What Does It Do?; 10/26/10)

Live CD/DVD/USB (Linux Live) (LiveCD Creation Resources) (YUMI-based Multiboot 2/4/8GB Instructions and Documentation) (YUMI-based Multiboot 4GB METEOR Instructions and Documentation) (YUMI-based Multiboot 650MB MINI Instructions and Documentation) (live USB linux with dd command; 6/22/13) (HOWTO: Create a bootable Linux Media using the dd Command; 3/9/15)

Mathematic (MathJax Quick Start Tutorial; 8/19/13)

Memory (Understanding Linux Memory Usage: Free, Cached, Buffered, and Hardware; 1/21/14)

Migration (from Window) (7/2/09; Linux Migration Guide: Finding Linux Equivalents to Your Favorite Windows Programs)

Music (Review: MOC, text-based audio player; 4/24/09) (MOC — Console Audio Player for Linux; 5/15/07) (MOC - Playing Music in the Terminal; 3/24/14)

Network (How do I find my network information – in Linux? 4/20/10) (Unix: More networking basics for the beginner; 3/24/14) (Wicd tutorial; 8/14)

Package Manager (; 11/18/11)

PDA (Synchronizing PalmOS devices with Linux; 3/17/05) (Palm; pilot-link) (Palm OS Desktop HOWTO); 3/02) (Palm ubuntu) (Palm; jpilot forum post) (Linux With Laptops, Notebooks, PDAs and Mobile Cell Phones) (The Linux Wacom Project) (TCP/IP over PPP between a PalmOS PDA and Linux) (How can I connect my Palm Treo to the Internet?) (Synchronize your PalmOS® Handheld over Bluetooth in Linux; 2/9/04) (Palm Treo 700p reset HowTo) (PalmOS Syncing Under Karmic; 12/12/10)

Phone (How to Videoconference Linux and Windows with Ekiga)

Pinning (A Short Introduction To Apt-Pinning)


Printer (CUPS used by most distributions) (Little HOWTO on installing CUPS on my system. [RPM]) (LinuxFoundation: OpenPrinting)
http://localhost:631 (Control Center on local computer) (Gutenprint [formerly Gimp-Print]) (HP Linux and Image Printing) (HP OfficeJet Linux driver) (Brother Linux Driver Homepage) (Brother CUPS driver and CUPS Wrapper driver download) (EPSON; Download: Inkjet Printer) (Canon; drivers) (Canon Europe) (Lexmark Z700/P700/P3150 linux printer driver) (Add A PDF Printer) (Using lpr with CUPS) (How to Manage Printers in Linux; 5/27/14) (Getting Started with 3-D Printing: the Hardware ; 10/26/12)

Printer 3D (Guide to Open Source and Linux-Compatible 3D Printers, Part Two; 2/4/13) (What's New in 3D Printing, Part I: Introduction; 12/23/15) (What's New in 3D Printing, Part II: the Hardware; 1/20/16) (What's New in 3D Printing, Part III: the Software; 2/4/16) (What's New in 3D Printing, Part IV: OctoPrint; 2/24/16)

(moved to privacy tools in section "Others")
Publishing (non-commercial; Sribus HowTo)

QR code (How to Create QR Codes In Ubuntu/Linux Mint; 2/221/15)

RPM (RPM instructions) (Maximum RPM; 2000) (20 Practical Examples of RPM Commands in Linux; 4/10/13) (How to convert packages between .deb and .rpm; 12/15)

RPM (building) (RPM Tutorial) (Maximum RPM; 2000)

RPM (configuration)

(see email and HTTPS for security on email and websites) (How to Remove Windows Viruses with Linux; 2/2/10) (Linux Security: Lock Down a New System Immediately; 10/7/16) (non-commercial; Snort docs) (non-commercial; Snort docs) (non-commercial; Snort tutorial) (Top 5 Firefox Security Add-ons) (51 Open Source Tools to Protect Your Identity; 12/3/09);search-results-rivers/ (Five tips for improving Linux security; 6/15/10) (9 Best practices to secure your Linux Desktop & Server | Including installation & Configuration; 4/8/11) (How to block traffic from other countries in linux; 12/27/13)

Server Analysis

Speech Recognition (Sphinx official wiki) (Sphinx unofficial wiki)

Sound/Audio (Audacity Crash Course; 8/19/14)

System Cleaning (Keeping Linux Clean; 11/2/16)

System Monitor (conky)

TextEditor (see vi & emacs also) (gEdit, an easy to use text editor with many advanced features)

Torrent (A beginners guide to bittorrent and the KTorrent client software; 5/9/14)

Troubleshooting (12 Most Common Linux TroubleShooting Scenarios; 12/13)

USB Iso (create & boot) (How To Boot From a USB Device (Flash Drive or External Hard Drive)) (Linux on a Fingernail) (Putting Linux Muscle in Your Pocket: Resources for USB Thumb Drives; 1/16/09) (How To Create a Linux Mint Persistent Live USB; 3/27/14) (Create Multiboot OS USB with Multisystem in Linux; 4/15)

Video (The Current State of Video Streaming Services on Linux; 11/5/16) (Firefox Hello) (WebRTC; Real-Time Communications (RTC) capabilities via simple APIs)

Web Publishing (Drupal: Get started the easy way; 11/27/09)

Window Emulator/Simulator/Virtualization (WINE' forum) (A quick introduction to Wine) (WINE; Frank's Corner) (WINE; esword) (PPA for Ubuntu Wine Team ) (WINE: InstalklShield) (QEMU forum) (VMWare forum)

Window Manager (not Desktop Environment) (Openbox guide) (openbox doc) (Beginner’s Guide to Fluxbox Configuration; 1/19/10) (fluxbox wiki) (Creating the Perfect Fluxbox Desktop on Linux; 7/12/11);siu-container (Four great pipe menus for Openbox; 7/25/11) (; 8/24/12)

Wireless Softwares (Ndiswrapper) (MadWifi)

Word Processor (LibreOffice Documentation) (OpenOffice wiki) (OpenOffice migration) (Taming ( directory) (The Unofficial FAQ; 2003) ( API & BASIC formats) (OpenOffice directory) ( wiki) (Open Office - Making It Start Faster!) (Getting the most out of Writer) (; commercial support) (Get Open Office; commercial support) (eLearning for; commercial support) ( and Scribus tutorial) (PDF Export in; 4/13/10) (Scribus tutorial) (Get Started With Scribus) (Scribus Tutorial) (Getting started with Scribus; 1/12/10) (WordPerfect on Linux FAQ) (non-commercial; specs for XML?)

Workspace (Linux Virtual Workspaces--How Do They Differ?; 6/11/13)


General (The 70 coolest free applications in existence) (Silly Programs; 6/19/11) (67 Open Source Replacements for Really Expensive Applications; 8/16/11) (60 Open Source Tools for Protecting Your Privacy; 8/22/11) (40+ Open Source and Free Software; 11/30/12) (15 Greatest Open Source Terminal Applications Of 2012; 1/7/13) (The Ultimate Guide to Open Source Software; 12/17/13) (50 Open Source Replacements for Windows XP; 4/16/14)

Accounting (non-commercial; GNUCash - double accounting) (non-commercial; KMyMoney) (non-commercial; SQL ledger - double accounting) (non-commercial; LedgerSMB) (non-commercial; jGnash) (non-commercial; Gnofin) (non-commercial; Grisbi) (non-commercial; ARIA) (non-commercial; BANAL; bookkeeping) (non-commercial; Buddi) (non-commercial; Homebank) (non-commercial; Mjrz) (non-commercial; Money Manager Ex) (non-commercial; PLCash) (non-commercial; ADempiere) (non-commercial; JQuantLib) (non-commercial; iFreeBudget) (non-commercial; wxbanker) (non-commercial; Checkbook Tracking - single accounting; 2003) (commercial but free trial and/or free community edition; Compiere) (commercial; Moneydance) (commerical; Quasar) (commercial; QuickBooks Online) (commerical; JAYA123; small business) (commercial; Linux General Ledger) (Top 10 Linux financial tools) (various links) (63 Open Source Replacements for Popular Financial Software; 7/11/11)

Alarms (list)

Anti-Virus/Adware/Worms (non-commerical; Clam AntiVirus) (non-commercial; kbitdefender) (commerical; AVG Anti-Virus) -> linux (commercial; bitdefender (commerical; F-Prot Antivirus) (commerical; AntiVir) (commerical; RAV Antivirus) (commerical; avast!) (commerical; Norman) (commerical; Panda) (commercial; Astaro's products)

Applications (non-commercial; Portable App)

Archiver Utility (non-commercial; PeaZip)

Astromony (non-commercial; Celestia) (non-commercial; Stellarium)

AntiVirus (Malware and Antivirus Systems for Linux; 8/19/13)

Backups (non-commercial; rsnapshot) (non-commercial; Partition Image) (non-commercial; cdtar) (non-commercial; Konserve) (non-commercial; g4u) (non-commercial; DAR) (non-commercial; AMANDA) (non-commercial; mkCDrec) (non-commercial: DIRVISH) (non-commercial; SBackup) (non-commercial; BackupPC) (non-commercial; SystemRescueCd) (non-commercial; rdiff-backup) (non-commercial: Bacula) (non-commercial: KBackup) (non-commercial: Back In Time) (non-commercial: FSArchiver) (non-commercial: luckyBackup) (non-commercial: Grsync) (non-commercial: Mondo Rescue) (non-commercial; SpiderOak; online backup; includes sync and sharing) (commercial; free software, but paid storage; CrashPlan) (commercial; Arkeia) (commercial; VERITAS ) (commercial: tkBackup) (commercial; Acronis) (commercial; BackupSW) (various utilities) (various utilities) (10 outstanding Linux backup utilities; list; 7/21/09) (60 OS Replacements for Storage Software; software list include compression, database, data recovery, etc; October 15, 2012) (5 Awesome Open Source Backup Software For Linux and Unix-like Systems; 11/6/15)

Bandwidth Monitoring Tools (various utilities)

Battery (non-commercial; Powertop)

Bible (non-commercial; Bibletime) (non-commercial; Xiphos [was GNOMESword) (non-commercial; Alkitab Bible Study) (non-commercial; Bible Analyzer) (non-commercial; BPBible)

Blog (non-commercial; Serendipity) (non-commercial; WordPress w/ user website) (non-commercial; WordPress w/o user website) (non-commercial; LifeType) (non-commercial; Gwibber) (non-commercial; Dotclear) (non-commercial; Choqok; uses KDE) (non-commercial; Twidge; for programming) (commercial, but free basic; Movable Type)

Bluetooth (non-commercial; blueman)

Boot Manager (non-commercial; Plop Boot Manager; free for non-commercial use)

BootLoader (non-commercial; Grub)

Browsers (non-commercial; firefox) (non-commercial; firebug = firefox add-on) (All Things Appy: 5 Best Firefox Tools for Shopping Online; 10/18) (Six browser plug-ins that protect your privacy; 10/18/14) (non-commercial; SeaMonkey) (non-commercial; Swiftfox; firefox optimized) (non-commercial; Iceweasel; debian's firefox) (non-commercial; firefox & mozilla plugins) (non-commercial; GNUzilla; GNU mozilla) (non-commercial; AdblocK [Mozilla and Firebird]) (Top 10 Firefox Add-ons to Make Browsing Safe, Secure and Private Once Again; 11/15/10) (Best Firefox extensions: Organize your way to a better Firefox; 1/24/11) (non-commercial; Prism [works with firefox]) (non-commercial; Pale Moon; firefox w/o Australis) (non-commercial; konqueror; KDE) (non-commercial; Epiphany) (non-commercial; Midori) (non-commercial; Vivaldi) (non-commercial; galeon; GNOME) (non-commercial; dillo) (non-commercial; Lynx [text browser]) (non-commercial; WWW Text Browser) (non-commercial; Amaya) (non-commercial; NetSurf); IEs4linux) (non-commercial; NetSurf) (commercial but open source; Iron [based on Chromiun, but w/ privacy) (non-commercial; Chromium) (non-commercial; QupZilla) (non-commercial; Mantra) (non-commercial; dwb) (non-commercial; Slimjet); privacy; in alpha as of 10/17; Brave) (non-commercial, but produced by Google; Chrome) (commercial, but free basic; Opera)

CAD/Rendering/Graphics (non-commercial; Blender) (non-commercial; Inkscape) (non-commercial; Wings 3D) (non-commercial; POV-Ray) (non-commercial; Sodipodi) (non-commercial; LX-Viewer) (non-commercial; BRL-CAD) (non-commercial; SagCAD) (non-commercial; archimdes) (non-commercial; Misfit Model 3D) (non-commercial; Open CASCADE) (non-commercial; FreeCAD) (non-commercial; VARKON) (non-commercial; K-3D) (non-commercial; Art of Illusion) (non-commercial; ArgoUML) (non-commercial; Electric; electric CAD) (non-commercial; Ayam) (non-commercial; LibreCAD) (commercial service, free program; DraftSight) (commercial; QCad) (commercial; CAM Expert = CAM extension of QCad) (commercial; VariCAD) (commercial; BricsCad) (commercial; CadSoft) (commercial; ARES) (list of CAD programs) (list of CAD programs)

Calculator (non-commercial; SpeedCrunch) (non-commercial; Qalculate) (non-commercial; Extcalc) (non-commercial; Genius) (non-commercial; KCalc; part of KDE)

Calendar (non-commercial; lighting) (non-commercial; sunbird) (commercial; Calcium) (commercial; Rainlendar)

Camera/Webcam (see also photo) (non-commercial; Cheese) (non-commercial; Guvcview) (non-commercial; ZoneMinder; surveillence) (non-commercial; Opengazer) (non-commercial; Dasher; motion text-editing) (non-commercial; MouseTrap; motion GNOME controls) (commercial, but free; gpicsync; GPS)

Car Navigation (non-commercial; RoadMap)

CD/DVD Burner (non-commercial; K3b) (non-commercial; xfburn) (non-commercial; Brasero) (non-commercial; X-CD-Roast) (non-commercial; GnomeBaker) (non-commercial; KreateCD) (non-commercial; CD Bake Oven) (non-commercial; Arson) (non-commercial: BashBurn (console)) (non-commercial; SimpleBurn) (non-commercial; Cdrdao) (linux - free, window - pay; ISO Master) (non-commercial; AcetoneISO)

Cellphone (see PDA also) (non-commercial; BitPim)

Childern's Softwares (list) (non-commercial; Linux4kids: Educational Linux Software) (non-commercial; LinuxKidX) (non-commercial; Tux4Kids [TuxMath, TuxPaint, TuxTyping]) (non-commercial; Etoys) (non-commercial; GCompris)

Cloud (private) (non-commercial; ownCloud) (non-commercial; FreedomBox) (non-commercial; OpenStack) (non-commercial; Skylable [commercial support]; private data cloud) (non-commercial; percloud; [privacy, still in pre-alpha as of 10/13]) (commercial; ownCloud; free program, but commercial support) (commercial; Eucalyptus) (DropBox) (commercial; pydio) (commercial; open source, private cloud; Mattermost) (commercial; open source; Rocket.Chat) (The 9 Best Free Dropbox Alternatives for Linux; 3/17)

Cloud (public) (Xen; security)

Code Editor (???; Bespin; web-based)

Collaboration and Integration Server (browser+email+calendar+etc) (non-commercial; Open-Xchange) (commercial but free community edition; (commercial; SyncNotes)

Concurrent Versions System (CVS) (non-commercial; Horde)

Content Management System (CMS) (non-commercial; Drupal) (non-commercial; Textpattern) (non-commercial; Plone) (non-commercial; Tryton) (Best Free Shopping Carts; 10/22/13)

Cookbook/Recipe (non-commercial; Gourmet Recipe Manager) (non-commercial; PHPRecipeBook) (non-commercial; Krecipes)

Cloud (non-commercial; ownCloud)
(non-commercial; Cryptomator; client-side encryption) (4 host-proof or PRISM-proof Cloud storage services; 8/17/13)

Collaboration (non-commercial; Wire)

Crossword (list) (non-commercial; crossword)

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) (non-commercial; XRMS) (commercial support; open source; SugarCRM) (commercial; vtiger) (commercial; (commercial; NetSuite) (commercial; free basic edition; Free CRM)

Data Recovery (non-commercial; SystemRescueCd) (non-commercial; Mondo) (non-commercial; TestDisk) (non-commercial; PhotoRec) (commercial; SpinRite) (14 top data recovery softwares; 11/28/14)

Database (non-commercial; PgAccess) (non-commercial; knoda) (non-commercial; dbMetrix) (commercial, but open source license) (commercial, but open source license; Rekall) (commercial w/ free trial; Navicat) (commercial; Omnis Studio & Omnis Web Client)

Desktop (web-based) (commercial, but free; Desktoptwo) (non-commercial; eyeOS)

Desktop computing and communications platform (security) (non-commercial; Subgraph OS)

Desktop Environment (more than a window manager) (non-commercial; KDE) (non-commercial; GNOME) (non-commercial; XFCE) (non-commercial; LXDE) (non-commercial; MATE) (non-commercial; Equinox) (non-commercial; Roxc) (list) (non-commercial; AntiRight) (non-commercial; XFCE Plugin: Mailwatch)

Destruction (non-commercial; DBAN) (non-commercial; Wipe) (4 Tools to Securely Delete Files from Linux; 3/24/15)

Development (non-commercial; StatusNet)

Diabetes (commercial w/ free trial; HealthEngage)

Diagnostic (non-commercial; Linux Diagnostic Tools) (commercial; PC-Doctor)

Dictionary (non-commercial; JaLingo) (non-commercial; Sdictionary) (non-commercial; StarDict) (non-commercial; XDXF; file conversion) (Qstardict and GoldenDict - Two great offline dictionary applications for Linux; 10/21/11)

Diet (non-commercial; NUT) (non-commercial; NUT docs) (non-commercial; Diet Monger)

Directory Content Manager (non-commercial; git)

Disk Imaging and Cloning (non-commercial; Clonezilla)

Disk Usage (non-commercial; KGraphSpace)

Document Management (commercial; free basic; sqlDESKTOP)

(non-commercial; uGet) (non-commercial; KGet)
(non-commercial; Steadyflow) (non-commercial; ProZilla & ProzGUI)

eBook Reader (non-commercial; calibre) (non-commercial; FBReader) (non-commercial; Lucidor) (non-commercial; Lucifox; firefox add-on) (non-commercial; Okular; KDE) (non-commercial; pPub) (non-commercial; Cool Reader) (non-commercial; Sigil) (non-commercial; Kchmviewer) (EPUBReader; Firefox add-on)

Education (non-commercial; Marble; KDE World Altas),1000002985,39700497,00.htm (Ten Linux apps that get top marks from schools)

Ecommerce (non-commercial; NOP's Free Shopping Cart; use jaascript) (non-commercial; osCommerce) (non-commercial; Commerce.CGI; paid support) (free software Zen Cart; commercial support) (free software AgoraCart; commercial support) (commaudioercial w/ free trial; CubeCart)

Email (see also groupware) (non-commercial; thunderbird) (non-commecial; yamb - thunderbird extension) (non-commercial; SeaMonkey [continuation of mozilla]) (non-commercial; evolution) (non-commercial; kmail) (non-commercial; Claws Mail) (non-commercial; Mutt) (non-commercial; Alpine) (non-commercial; Sylpheed) (non-commercial; Elm [unix]) (non-commercial; Pine [unix]) (non-commercial; RoundCube; webmail) (non-commercial; POPFile) (non-commercial; Spicebird) (non-commercial; SquirrelMail) (non-commercial; Cassiopeia's BitMail) (non-commercial; Balsa; for GNOME) (non-commercial; Trojit) (non-commercial; Mailpile; privacy; in alpha as of 8/13) (non-commercial; neomailbox; privacy email) (non-commercial; FreedomBox; privacy email) (offline secure email; non-commercial; Mailpile) (non-commercial; Rambox; includes messaging) (non-commercial; balsa) (commercial w/ free trial; Nylas; web based) (commercial & non-commercial: PowerMail) (commercial w/ free trial; AXIGEN) (commercial w/ free trial; Nylas) (5 open source alternatives to Gmail; 9/10/15) (list of email notification programs)

Encryption (non-commercial; GnuPG) (non-commercial; LUKS) (non-commercial; CrossCrypt) (non-commercial; ccrypt) (non-commercial; TrueCrypt; discontinued - use alternatives) (TrueCrypt is discontinued, try these free alternative disk encryption tools; 11/22/16)

Enterprise resource planning (overlap with accounting and point-of-sale) (commerical; Open ERP) (non-commercial; Openbravo)

Fax (commercial; fax2send) (non-commercial; GFAX) (non-commercial; Pine) (non-commercial; HylaFAX)

File Transfer Protocol (non-commercial; Filezilla)

File Manager (non-commercial; Konqueror) (non-commercial; Nautilus) (non-commercial; Thunar) (non-commercial; Midnight Commander) (non-commercial; PCMan) (non-commercial; Dolphin) (non-commercial; Krusader) (non-commercial; ROX-Filer) (non-commercial; X File Manager) (non-commercial; awesome) (non-commercial; gentoo; not a linux distro)

File Sharing (non-commercial; OnionShare; private file sharing) (non-commercial; Azureus) (non-commercial; emule)

Filter (non-commercial; DansGuardian) (non-commercial; Glubble; use with firerfox) (commercial; CensorNet)

Firewall (non-commercial; Firestarter) (non-commercial; Tripwire) (non-commercial; Guarddog) (non-commercial & commercial; Firewall Builder) (non-commercial; Shorewall) (commercial; IPCop) (commercial; ClarkConnect)

Fitness (commercial; Open Fitness)

Flash (non-commercial; GPLFlash ) (non-commercial; Gnash) (non-commercial; Swfdec) (non-commercial; Lightspark) (commercial; adobe flash)

Font (non-commercial; FreeType)

Forums (non-commercial; phpBB) (commercial + free demo; vBulletin) (Top 10 free forum software and Free Forum creator tools; 12/13)

FTP Equivalents (non-commercial; gFTP) (non-commercial; rsync) (non-commercial; LFTP) (non-commercial; vsftpd) (non-commercial; C-Kermit) (non-commercial; Kasablanca) (non-commercial; server; ProFTPD) (commercial; Secure FTP Wrapper) (commercial; various programs) (commercial; various programs) (commercial; IglooFTP)

Games (non-commercial; linux-games) (non-commercial; linux-gamer) (non-commercial; LinuxGames) (non-commercial; The Linux Game Tome) (non-commercial; Games) (non-commercial; Backgammon - gnubg) (non-commercial; Chess - eboard) (non-commercial; Chess - XBoard) (non-commercial; Chess - GNU Chess) (non-commercial; Chess - Knights/KDE) (100 "Funnest" Open Source Games and Apps; 7/17/12)

Graphics (non-commercial; GNUplot) (non-commercial; GIMP) (non-commercial; GIMPshop; GIMP add-on) (non-commercial; INKSCAPE) (non-commercial: TuxPaint [children]) (non-commercial; SciLab) (non-commercial; GImageView) (non-commercial; Octave) (non-commercial; r-project) (non-commercial; Pixel) (non-commercial; dia) (non-commercial; OpenGL) (non-commercial; SVGAlib) (non-commercial; Krita [part of KOffice]) (non-commercial; Xaralx) (non-commercial; LabPlot) (non-commercial; Xfig) (non-commercial; Karbon [part of KOffice]) (non-commercial; sK1) (non-commercial; Skencil) (non-commercial; Qtpfsgui; HDR imaging application> (non-commercial; MyPaint) (non-commercial; KolourPaint; KDE) (non-commercial; Krita) (non-commercial; CinePaint) (non-commercial; Pencil) (non-commercial; Synfig) (non-commercial; Skencil) (non-commercial; Kivio; KOffice flowchart)> (non-commercial; Ktoon) (non-commercial; Pinta) (commercial; Xara) (non-commercial; various utilities) (various programs)

Greeting Cards (non-commercial; KreetingKard)

Groupware (Email, Calendar, etc) (non-commercial; phpGroupWare) (non-commercial; Horde) (non-commercial; Kolab) (non-commercial; open-xcheng) (non-commercial; Simple Groupware & CMS) (non-commercial; Citadel) (non-commercial; sogo) (non-commercial; eGroupware) (commercial; Zimbra) (commercial; Scalix) (commercial; Zarafa; free trial)

Hardware Information (non-commercial; HardInfo) (non-commercial; Glances)
see console command, lshw

Health (commercial; Diabetes)

Game (Several Great Linux Terminal Games; 2/22/14)

Installation (non-commercial; Synaptic; debian GUI Installer) (non-commercial; Alien; interchanges deb, rpm, tgz, ...) (non-commercial; autopackage) (non-commercial; Zero Install system) (non-commercial; klik) (non-commercial; Ksplice) (non-commercial; Keryx [cross-platform package manager) (Top 6 Linux and BSD graphical installation programs; 11/19/11)

Instant Messaging (non-commercial; Pidgin) (non-commercial; Tox) (list of Tox GUI variants) (non-commercial; Finch [terminal pidgin]) (non-commercial; CenterIM) (non-commercial; Crypho; private chat) (non-commercial; Openfire) (non-commercial; Tox; privacy) (non-commercial; qTox; privacy?) (commercial;, but free; Meebo; web-based)


iPod (non-commercial; BashPodder) (non-commercial; gPodder) (non-commercial; PenguinTV; RSS & video also)

IRC (IRC Clients for Linux;10/11/14)

Journal (non-commercial; Xournal)

Label (non-commercial; gLabels)

Language (non-commercial; LingoTeach) (non-commercial; Step Into Chinese) (non-commercial; ZWDisplay)

LaTeX Editor (non-commercial; Gummi) (non-commercial; Texmaker) (non-commercial; TeXlipse)

Mathematics (commercial, but free online calculators; Calculatorium) (non-commercial; Mathomatic) (non-commercial; Maxima) (non-commercial; SAGE: Open Source Mathematics Software) (non-commercial; Octave) (non-commercial; Sage) (non-commercial; Genius Mathematics Tool) (non-commercial; FreeMat; rapid engineering and scientific processing) (list: Best Open Source Mathematical Software; 8/21/13)

Map (non-commercial; Marble [KDE]) (non-commercial; Maps [GNOME])

Management (non-commercial; dotProject) (non-commercial; Redmine) (non-commercial; PHProjekt) (non-commercial; ProjectLibre; replaces Microsoft Project) (commercial; Zoho Projects) (commercial support; free download; Aethera)

Medical (non-commercial; GNUmed) (list of softwares; (Best Open Source Medical and Healthcare Software; 10/16/13)

Memory (non-commercial; procps)

Menu Editor (non-commercial; MenuLibre)

Messaging (non-commercial; Telegram)
(non-commercial; SaaS messaging; Mattermost) (non-commercial; Rambox; includes email)

Migration (commercial; Versora Progression Desktop)

Mobile Internet (non-commercial;

Mobile Phone (non-commercial; gnokii) (non-commercial; MultiSync)

Modem (non-commercial: WvDial) (non-commercial: minicom) (non-commercial; Peng; for AOL)

Note: Movie/Video, Multimaedia, and Music overlaps

Movie/Video (including TV) (non-commercial; Xine) (non-commercial; MPlayer) (non-commercial; MythTV) (non-commercial; Kaffeine) (non-commercial; Kdenlive) (non-commercial; Sinek) (non-commercial; VLC media player) (non-commercial; xawtv) (non-commercial; Kino) (non-commercial; VideoLAN) (non-commercial; LiVES) (non-commercial; Konverter) (non-commercial; DBox2; + howto) (non-commercial; linuxMCE) (non-commercial; SMPlayer) (non-commercial; XBMC) (non-commercial; minitube; for youtube viewing) (non-commercial; tvtime) (commercial, but free software; Zattoo; Europe) (commercial, but free software; Livestation) (commercial, but free software; Boxee) (commercial, but free software; SopCast [P2P]) (commercial; TitanTV) (commercial; OCTOSHAPE) (11 Video Players for Linux)

Multimedia (non-commercial; Simple DirectMedia Layer)

Music (non-commercial; Amarok; KDE) (non-commercial; Rosegarden) (non-commercial; Guitar Pro) (non-commercial; SKALE TRACKER> (non-commercial; SoundTracker) (non-commercial; LMMS) (various stuffs and docs) (non-commercial; LilyPond) (non-commercial; ZynAddSubFX) (non-commercial; Hydrogen) (non-commercial; jlGui) (non-commercial; Audacious) (non-commercial; Renoise; somposition> (non-commercial; Listen [GNOME]) (non-commercial; Quod Libet) (non-commercial; Decibel Audio Player) (non-commercial; TuxGuitar) (non-commercial; Renoise) (non-commercial; MOC [Music on Console]) (non-commercial; cmus) (non-commercial; mp3blaster) (non-commercial; vorbis) (non-commercial; mpg123) (non-commercial; Decibel Audio Player; GNOME) (non-commercial; Traverso [recording & editing]) (non-commercial; Banshee) (non-commercial; Clementine) (non-commercial; Guayadeque) (non-commercial; Rhythmbox) (non-commercial; Quod Libet) (non-commercial; Exaile) (non-commercial; Music Player Daemon) (non-commercial; DeaDBeeF) (21 Best Music Players That Are Worth Trying On Linux; 11/2/15)

Music Editor (overlap with Music) (non-commercial; Denemo) (non-commercial; LilyPondTool) (non-commercial; Kwave; KDE) (non-commercial; Jokosher)

Navigation (non-commercial; Navit) (non-commercial; GpsDrive)

Network (including network monitor) (non-commercial; EtherApe) (non-commercial; IPTraf) (non-commercial; Nagios) (non-commerical; WiFi Radar) (commercial; Bonjour) (commercial, but free basic; Wireshark) (Top 4 Linux network managers; 10/17/14)

News Readers/RSS (non-commercial; Newspipe [email]) (non-commercial; Straw [GNOME]) (non-commercial; Syndigator) (non-commercial; Snownews [text]) (non-commercial; BottomFeeder) (non-commercial; Liferea) (non-commercial; Live Bookmarks; Firefox web browser extension) (non-commercial; infoRSS) (non-commercial; Sage; Firefox web browser extension) (non-commercial; Feedview; Firefox web browser extension) (non-commercial; RSSOwl) (non-commercial; newsbeuter) (non-commercial; Akregator) (non-commercial; FreshRSS) (Feed Readers for Linux; 10/17/14)

Notes (non-commercial; Gnote) (non-commercial; Simplenote) (non-commercial; NixNote) (Notes-Taking Applications for Linux; 3/17/14) (non-commercial; Turtl)

Optical Character Recognition (list)

Package Manager (non-commercial; Synaptic Package Manager) (non-commercial; Yum) (Top 6 Linux and BSD graphical installation programs; 11/19/11) (non-commercial; GParted) (non-commercail; Gparted-liveCD) (non-commercial; SystemRescueCd) (non-commercial; Parted) (non-commercial; QTParted) (non-commercial; Partition Image) (non-commercial; Parted Magic) (non-commercial; Ranish)
A (non-commercial; Guix) (non-commercial; Ext2 Installable File System; reads linux files from window)

Password Manager (non-commercial; Gorilla) (non-commercial; PasswordMaker) (non-commercial; PwManager); Universal Password Manager)

PDA (non-commercial; MultiSync) (non-commercial; ColdSync) (non-commercial; J-Pilot) (non-commercial; J-Pilot Videos Plugin) (non-commercial; PilotManager) (non-commercial; pilot-link) (non-commercial; GPE) (non-commercial; OpenSync; successor of Multisync)

PDF and Postscript readers listed w/ Programming
Pharmacy (overlap with Medical) (commercial; PKonRx)

Phone (including video phone) (non-commercial; Ekiga; includes videophone) (non-commercial; Gnome-o-phone) (non-commercial; ANT) (non-commercial; Gyach) (non-commercial; Twinkle) (non-commercial; VOCP; call answering/voice messaging) (non-commercial; Kiax) (non-commercial; Linphone) (non-commercial; FreeSWITCH) (non-commercial; VOCP; call answering/voice messaging) (non-commercial; Empathy) (online secure videophone; non-commercial; Ring) (non-commercial; Tox, private IM, phone, & videophone) (non-commercial; QuteCom [formerly WengoPhone]) (non-commercial; Blink) (non-commercial; WebRTC) (non-commercial; Videobridge; multi-party video) (non-commercial; Ring; privacy) (commercial, but free online???; online video) (commercial; Jitsi (SIP Communicator); paid support, but free source) (commercial; Skype; free basics) (commercial; Qnext; free basics) (commercial; Gizmo; free basics) (commercial; Zfone;secure)
(commercial; Viber; free if wifi to another Viber member) (commercial; multi-language; Riot)

Photo (see Graphics also) (non-commercial; GIMPPhoto) (non-commercial; Picasa) (non-commercial; gPhoto2) (non-commercial; Phatch) (non-commercial; F-Spot) (non-commercial; Gwenview) (non-commercial; Kipi; KDE) (non-commercial; Fotoxx) (non-commercial; blueMarine) (non-commercial; Rawstudio) (non-commercial; Raw Therapee) (non-commercial; F-Spot) (non-commercial; digiKam) (non-commercial; KPhotoAlbum) (non-commercial; Pixie) (non-commercial; Sunflow) (non-commercial; RawTherapee) (non-commercial; Fotoxx) (non-commercial; Krita [KDE]) (non-commercial; Hugin) (non-commercial; darktable) (commercial; Bibble) (commercial, but free trial; LightZone) (commercial; Minus; share files & music also)

Point of Sale (non-commercial; BananaPOS) (non-commercial; Lemon Pos) (non-commercial; TuxShop) (non-commercial; BananaPos) (commercial; SUSE® Linux Enterprise Point of Service) (commercial; Volanté)

Poll (commercial, but free; Pollhost; online) (list)

Postscript (non-commercial; Ghostscript)

Presentation (non-commercial; MagicPoint)

Printer (non-commercial; Rasterbator) (commercial; TurboPrint)

Privacy (non-commercial; Firefox add-on; Lightbeam for Firefox) (Seven Firefox Plug-ins That Improve Online Privacy); 3/12/10) (non-commercial; Crypho; private chat) (non-commercial; BleachBit; clean cookies, temp. files, logs, etc) (non-commercial; SelekTOR)

Programming Editor (non-commercial; Geany) (non-commercial; weHexEditor) (5 Of The Best Programming Editors Under Linux [2014]; 1/21/14) (9 Best IDEs and Code Editors for JavaScript Users; 1/31/15)
(non-commercial; Notepadqq)
(non-commercial; Atom) (non-commercial; Brackets) (non-commercial; Notepadqq)

Publishing (non-commercial; Scribus) (non-commercial; WordPress) (non-commercial; LaTex) (non-commercial; Tex) (non-commercial; Kile) (non-commercial; newspaper; iWebPress) (non-commercial; DocBook Wiki)

Radio (non-commercial; Campcaster) (commercial; Backbone)

Reference Management (What is good reference management software on Linux; 10/10/14)

Reminder (non-commercial; Todo.txt)

Robot (non-commercial; The Player Project) (non-commercial; OpenRDK) (non-commercial;

Router (Review: 6 slick open source routers; 11/14/12) (non-commercial; FREESCO)

Satellite (see Weather too) (non-commercial; Earth3D) (non-commercial; World Wind; use java) (non-commercial; IDV)

Scanner (non-commercial; SANE) (non-commercial; XSane) (non-commercial; Simple Scan) (non-commercial; gscan2pdf; create pdf from scans) (non-commercial; QuiteInsanel; GUI frontend for SANE) (non-commercial; Kooka) (commercial; VueScan)

Screen Reader (non-commercial; The Speakup Project) (non-commercial; Gnopernicus) (non-commercial; Orca; [GNOME})

Search (web search w/ privacy) (web search; non-commercial; Nutch) (non-commercial; YaCy; peer-to-peer web search) (google search w/ privacy) (web search w/ privacy) (desktop search; non-commercial; Catfish) (desktop search; non-commercial; Beagle) (desktop search; non-commercial; Google Desktop) (desktop search; non-commercial; Recoll) (desktop search; non-commercial; Strigi) (desktop search; non-commercial; Tracker) (desktop search; non-commercial; DocFetcher) (desktop search; non-commercial; Pinot)

Security (data) (non-commercial; Snort) (non-commercial; Nmap) (non-commercial; Lynis; Security and system auditing tool) (non-commercial; various) (commercial; various programs) (commercial; Astaro's products) (commercial; IPCop) (commercial; ClarkConnect) (commercial; InMon) (commercial; Acronis)

Security (stolen laptop) (non-commercial; Prey)

Server (non-commercial; Apache) (non-commercial; XAMPP [was LAMPP]) (non-commercial; Zimbra) (non-commercial; triki; Semantic Web Server) (commercial; Desktop Multiplier + Desktop Server + etc) (commercial; Abyss)

Server Analysis (non-commercial; Webalizer) (non-commercial; AWStats) (non-commercial; netdata) (non-commercial; darkstat) (non-commercial; BBClone)

Sleep mode (non-commercial; Software Suspend)

Social Media
target="_blank" (non-commercial; diaspora*) (non-commercial; Corebird; use for Twitter)

Software Environment (non-commercial; Eclipse)

Software Configuration Management System (non-commercial; Fossil)

Sound/Audio (non-commercial; Ardour) (non-commercial; Audacity) (non-commercial; Protux) (non-commercial; XMMS) (non-commercial; aRts) (non-commercial; VLC media player) (non-commercial; iFP-Gnome) (commercial; open sound system) (commercial, but free; Creative Soundcard) (non-commercial; ripperX) (non-commercial; Grip) (non-commercial; Qtractor)

Spam (non-commercial; popfile) (non-commercial; SpamBayes)

Speech Recognition (non-commercial; Sphinx) (non-commercial; PocketSphinx) (non-commercial; SpeechLion; uses Sphinx) (non-commercial; HTK) (non-commercial; Julius) (non-commercial; VoxForge; alpha as of 9/27/08) (non-commercial; Open Mind Speech' alpha as of 9/27/08) (non-commercial; ANTLR) (Chrome/pavucontrol/PulseAudio) (non-commercial; Gnome-Voice-Control) (non-commercial; voximp) (non-commercial; speech-app) (commercial; Handheld Speech) (commercial; WizzScribe SI)

Statistic (non-commercial; PSPP)

Stock Ticker (commercial; E-Gate) (non-commercial; Stock Quote; Firefox web browser extension)

Stolen Laptop (non-commercial; Prey)

Surveilance (commercial; Tor)

System Administrtor (non-commercial; Webmin) (non-commercial; Unix Toolbox)

System Management Easilize

Tax (including on the web) (non-commercial; Open Source Tax Solver)

Terminal (non-commercial; aterm) (non-commercial; RXVT) (non-commercial; extragear) (non-commercial; Terminator) (non-commercial; RXVT) (non-commercial; CLI Companion) (non-commercial; Xiki) (20 Useful Terminal Emulators for Linux; 2/1/14) (What is a good terminal emulator on Linux?; 5/28/14)

Terminal Server (non-commercial; termbox)

TELNET Equivalents (non-commercial; OpenSSH) (non-commercial; SecPanel) (commercial; various programs) (commercial; various programs)

Text Editor (Emacs & vim are under console commands; programming editors are under Programming) (non-commercial; GEdit) (non-commercial; jEdit) (non-commercial; Kate) (non-commercial; KWrite; uses Kate components) (non-commercial; Leafpad) (non-commercial; Nano) (non-commercial; NEdit) (non-commercial; CUTE) (non-commercial; Scribe) (non-commercial; Sublime Text; programming) (non-commercial; SCIntilla/SciTE.html; programming) (non-commercial; FCKeditor [internet]) (non-commercial; medit; programming); CudaText)

Text Editor (collaborative) (non-commercial; Gobby) (commercial, but free; Writeboard) (commercial, but free; Etherpad) (The best Markdown editors for Linux; 10/5/14)

(non-commercial; eSpeak) (non-commercial; Cainteoir Text-to-Speech; uses eSpeak to read ebooks) (non-commercial; Festival) (non-commercial; KTTS) (non-commercial; Flite) (non-commercial; FreeTTS) (non-commercial; MaryTTS)

Tide (non-commercial; XTide)

Tile (Window Manager) (non-commercial; X-tile) (non-commercial; xmonad) (non-commercial; i3)

Torrent (non-commercial; libTorrent and rTorrent Project) (BitTorrent Clients for Linux; 3/13/14)

Translators (non-commercial; Wordtrans) (non-commercial; (non-commercial; FreeSpeak) (commercial & open source; OpenLogos) (commercial & online; Babelfish)

Tutorial (non-commercial; Tuxtorial) (non-commercial; Wink)

Typing (non-commercial; TuxType)

USB Installation (non-commercial; Unetbootin) (non-commercial; Rufus) (non-commercial; multiple distros; MultiBootUSB); etcher)

Video (including tv; check music also) (non-commercial; OpenShot) (How to watch free online TV on Linux; 2/10/14) (Non-linear video editing software: Open-source alternatives to Abobe Premiere Pro CC; 3/11/14) (Movie Players for Linux; 3/25/14) (Best Linux Video Editors; 10/26/15) (Feeling abandoned by Adobe? Check out the video editing suites for penguins; 12/26/15) (non-commercial; Firefox Hello)

Virtual Machines (non-commercial; Xen)

Virtual Network Computing (VNC) (non-commercial; TightVNC) (non-commercial; TightVNC) (commercial, but free; TightProjector) (non-commercial; Kaboodle)

Weather (see Satellite too) (non-commercial; GEMPAK) (non-commercial; WXP) (non-commercail; GrADS)

Web Application Framework (commercial & open source; [Adobe] Flex)

Web Analytic (non-commercial; Piwik) (Top 3 open source alternatives to Google Analytics' 10/23/14)

Web Proxy (non-commercial; Squid) (non-commercial; squidGuard, to be used with Squid)

Web Publishing (non-commercial; bluefish) (non-commercial; Quanta Plus; KDE) (non-commercial; Kompozer) (non-commercial; Nvu) (non-commercial; SCREEM) (non-commercial; mambo) (non-commercial; Amaya) (non-commercial; CKEditor) (non-commercial; TinyMCE; uses java) (non-commercial; TowTruck [Mozilla]; real-time collabration)

Wiki (non-commercial; MediaWiki) (non-commercial; TiddlyWiki) (non-commercial; doxWiki) (non-commercial; Wiki on a Stick)

Window Emulator/Simulator/Virtualization (non-commercial; Wine) (non-commercial; dosbox) (non-commercial; dosemu) (non-commercial; QEMU) (non-commercial; Bochs); CrossOver Office) (commercial; Win4Lin) (commercial; VMware) (commercial; Parallels) (commercial; AclereX)

Window Manager (not desktop environment) (non-commercial; Beryl) (non-commercial; Compiz) (non-commercial; openbox) (non-commercial; FluxBox) (non-commercial; Window Maker) (non-commercial; iceWM) (non-commercial; Screen) (non-commercial; awesome) (themes for fluxflux, openbox, iceWM, etc) (list)

Wireless (non-commercial; NdisWrapper) (non-commercial; MadWifi) (non-commercial; Kismet) (commercial, but open source) (10 tools to connect to wireless networks in Linux; 7/14/09),1000002985,39714325,00.htm (Ten top wireless connection tools for Linux; 8/14/09)

Word Processor (and Spreadsheet) (non-commercial; LibreOffice) (non-commercial; AbiWord) (non-commercial; KOffice) (non-commercial; KWord) (non-commercial; KSpread) (non-commercial; Kile [LaTeX]) (non-commercial; LyX) (non-commercial; go-oo) (non-commercial; OpenOffice) (non-commercial; OpenOffice extras) (non-commercial; OpenOffice macros) (non-commercial; addon) (commercial but free templates; OpenOffice; (non-commercial; filter for MS Word to read ODF) (non-commercial filter; WordPerfect filter) (commercial; TextMaker)

Word Processor (Web-based and/or Collaborative Editor) (???; AbiC; based on AbiWord) (commercial, but free; Zoho Writer) (commercial, but free; ThinkFree) (commercial, but free; Google Docs n Spreadsheets) (5 open source alternatives to Google Docs; 7/9/15) (commercial, but free; OpenReports) (commercial with free trial; Feng Office) (commercial, but free; ajaxWrite) (commercial, but free; picoscribe; office suite) (commercial, but free; Live Documents) (commercial;

Workspace (non-commercial; Fluxspace) X (Window Display) (Conky used by OpenBox) (non-commercial; conky)

Console Commands


Introduction (Learn Linux, 101: The Linux command line; 8/25/09) (unix) (FLOSS MANUALS) (The 16 Linux Shell Commands Every Desktop Linux User Should Know; 4/25/12) (Linux Shell environment; 10/31/12) (A Beginner's Guide to the Linux Command Line; 6/19/14) (Learning the Shell) (Switching From Windows to Nix or a Newbie to Linux - 20 Useful Commands for Linux Newbies; 5/13/14) (Introduction to Linux and the Shell; 10/5/13) (Chapter II: Useful General-Purpose Commands; 10/2/14) (Top 3 Online Resources for Learning the Command Line (For Linux and OS X); 9/5/15) (ILinux/Unix Tutorial for Beginners: Learn Online in 7 days; current)

unix Advanced (Advanced Bash-Scripting Guide; 3/24/09) (Some Useful Linux Commands; 2/02) (Shell scripting for system administrators: beyond the basics; 10/12/10) (Some tips to use the command line faster; 4/15/13) (51 Useful Lesser Known Commands for Linux Users; 12/13) (What are useful CLI tools for Linux system admins; 8/15/14) (25+ Awesome Linux/Unix command chaining examples; 7/26/12)

History (Evolution of shells in Linux; 12/11)

References (Linux Commands - a practical reference; 1/7/08) Page Linux Manual; date???) (Linux in a Nutshell, 5th Edition; 2009) (Linux terms, commands & programs; 2005) (An A-Z Index of the Bash command line for Linux; date???) (Linux by Example; date???) (Linux man pages; no date),295582,sid39_gci1282259,00.html (77 useful Linux commands and utilities; 12/3/07) (GNU/Linux Command-Line Tools Summary; no date) (; date???) (Other Basic Commands; unix; 1998) (UNIX / Linux Command Summary ; 2008) (Basic Linux Commands; 2009) (list; 10 must-have Linux (and not only) cheat-sheets; 8/23/08) (GNU/Linux Command-Line Tools Summary; 4/15/06) (10 Essential UNIX/Linux Command Cheat Sheets; list; 8/09?) (Top 10 Best Cheat Sheets and Tutorials for Linux / UNIX Commands; 6/17/09) (Unix Commands Cheat Sheet) (Important Shortcuts For Linux Beginners; 8/21/13) (Our Favourite Linux Cheat Sheets; 9/13) (BASH Frequently Asked Questions) (BashGuide) (How to access Linux command cheat sheets from the command line; 7/28/14)

Misc. (The funny side of Linux command line; 4/15/13) (Funny And Interesting Linux Commands – Part II; 5/8/13) (20 amusing Linux commands to have fun with the terminal; 3/14/14) (Connect to WiFi network from command line in Linux; 9/18/14)

Scripts (Linux Shell Scripting Tutorial; 2002) (How to write a shell script; date???) (UNIX Shell Scripting Tutorial; date???) ( (Tip to write scripts: Internal vs External commands; 7/15/13)
Various Utilities (15 Greatest Open Source Terminal Applications Of 2012;1/7/13) (How to look up the geographic location of an IP address from the command line; 3/13/14)

Specific: (Also check information from man and info, i.e., "man ls" and "info ls")

apt-get (include clean)

bc (terminal calculator) (What is a good command-line calculator on Linux; 10/21/14)


emacs (A Quick and Subtle Introduction to Emacs; 9/09) (add-on: Rinari for Ruby on Rail)

find (25+ examples of Linux find command – search files from command line; 8/12/13)

free (10 'free' Commands to Check Memory Usage in Linux; 12/4/15)

ftp (The Basics of FTP)

fstab (tuxfiles:linuxhelp)

gzip (7 Linux/Unix gzip and gunzip command examples; 5/25/14)

kill (including pkill & killall) (A Guide to Kill, Pkill and Killall Commands to Terminate a Process in Linux; 9/19/13)




rpm (RPM basics)


sed (Sed - An Introduction and Tutorial) (Wikipedia - sed) (sed . . . the stream editor) (sed, a stream editor)

sysrq (Fix Unresposive or Frozen Linux Computers ...)

systemd (Colourful ! systemd vs sysVinit Linux Cheatsheet; 9/5/14) (Understanding Systemd; 6/15) (Systemd - What You Need to Know; 7/11/15)> (wiki)

su + sudo (Make Sudo Sessions Last Longer in Linux; 8/29/13) (Difference Between su and sudo and How to Configure sudo in Linux; 3/19/14)

tar (Linux/Unix tar Command with Practical Examples; 4/2/13) (10 quick tar command examples to create/extract archives in Linux; 2/23/15)

tty (The tty Layer; 8/1/02)



useradd (The Complete Guide to "useradd" Command in Linux - 15 Practical Examples; 3/28/14)

vi & vim (Graphical vi-vim Cheat Sheet and Tutorial; 2008) (Vim Tutorial; 2009) (Overcoming Basic VIM Frustrations; date???) (VI (and Clone) Introductory Guide; 12/12/98) (VI (and Clone) Editor Reference Manual; 12/12/98) (Vim 101: A Beginner's Guide to Vim; 11/20/09) (Vim 201: An Intermediate Guide to Vim; 11/25/09) (Linux vim editor; 10/6/12) (VI Shortcuts & Commands For Newbies; 10/31/12) (Vim for people who think things like Vim are weird and hard; 6/23/14) (What are some obscure but useful Vim commands; 11/7/14) (Learn Linux, 101: File editing with vi; 1/4/16) (Vim Cheat Sheat for Programmers) (Vim tips and tricks that you probably never heard of; 10/14/16)

wget (GNU Wget 1.15 Manual)


General -> major distributions (DistroShare) (directory of linux distros) (Free GNU/Linux distributions) (How to choose the best Linux distro for you; 4/29/09) (Comparison of Linux distributions) (List of Linux distributions) (The LiveCD List [try a liveCD]) (Linux Distribution Chooser; updated 4/17/09)) Linux distribution should you try?; 6/28/09) (Linux Distribution Chooser 0.3; date???) (Choose OS; 8/13/05) (Overview of the ten major Linux distributions; 4/1/06) (How-To Choose the Right Distribution of Linux; 11/17/11) (Linux Distro Picker; 4/25/13) (Analysis of the top 10 Linux operating systems; 2/8/14) (Linux Distribution Timeline)

Make your own (InstallLinux; date???)


ArkOS (Raspberry Pi; privacy) (Main Site)

ArchBang (Arch Linux w/ Openbox (Main Site)

Arch Linux [fast, lightweight, console] (Main Site)

Arch Linux ARM (Main Site)

Browser Linux (Main Site)

Bunsen Linux (continuation of #!) (Main Site)
CrunchBang (Debian w/ OpenBox; discontinued) (Main Site) (CrunchBang stuffs) (Wiki) (forums) (Beginner's Guide to Linux/#!) (#! linux desktop guide) (review: Crunchbang - Beautiful Minimalism; 8/22/13) (!#++; sucessor to !#)

Damn Small Linux [small; FluxBox; debian-based] (Main Site)

Debian (Main Site) (Docs) (Docs Online & Book) (Docs) (Dotdeb; unofficial repository) (Unofficial APT repositories) (Reference Card)

DeLi(cate) (old computer) (Main Site)

DoudouLinux (children)

Easy Peasy (Main Site)

Emmabuntus (Main Site) (forum; French) (wiki) (blog; mostly French) (wiki)

Fedora (Main Site) (Complete Dose of Linux Poison; multimedia) (RPM Fusion: extras for Fedora) (; docs for various versions) (docs) (fedora-netbook) (Fedora 17 – Install Codecs, Drivers and Fonts in under 5 minutes!; 5/31/12) (How to install Flash player on Fedora 17; 6/11/12)

Foresight Linux (Main Site) (kids)

(Main Site)

GeckoLinux (Main Site)

gNewSense [fully free] (Main Site)

gOS (Main Site)

Ichthux (distro: Ichthux) (Ichthux distro)

Knoppix (Main Site) (wiki),1697,1918391,00.asp (Fixing Windows with Knoppix; 2/2/06),1697,1928189,00.asp (Fixing Linux with Knoppix; 2/17/09) Leenux (Main Site)

Linux Console (Main Site)

Linux from scratch

Linux Lite (LL Help Manual)

Linux Mint (Main Site) (Linux Mint Blogs) (Docs for Linux Mint 9) (Fluxbox menu; personal) (Change Screen Resolution on Linux Mint 11 LXDE; 8/16/11) (How to enable your Floppy driver; 2010) (A Beginners Guide To Setting Up Linux Mint LXDE, The Lightweight Champion) (Introduction To The Linux Mint Cinnamon Desktop; 2/19/12) (Manual disk partitioning guide for Linux Mint Debian; 4/25/12) (Install Skype 4.0 in Ubuntu/Linux Mint (New Release); 5/12) (Six Clicks: Linux Mint tips and tricks; 4/17/14) (TryMint) (10 things to do first in Linux Mint 18.1 Xfce) (LM Community) (LM News)

Mageia (Main Site) (Forums)

Mandriva (was Mandrake) (MainSite) (Forums) (Support) (Store) (Forums) (Docs) (Docs)

mbed OS (Main Site)

MeeGo (Main Site)

Mepis (Main Site) (Forums) (Guides) (Forums)

MiniMe (mini PCLinuxOS) (search for MiniMe)

NanoLinux (Main Page)

Nosonja (simple Arch) (main site)

PCLinuxOS (Main Site) -> support -> wiki (Wiki) -> forums/ (Forums) (Hardware Database) (PCLinuxOS magazine) (News)

PC/OS (Ubuntu w/ fully loaded XFCE) (Main Site)

PiBang (Crunchbang on Pi [ARM]) (Main Site) Porteus-kiosk (Main Site)

Puppy Linux [small; iceWM] (Main Site) (Forums)

Qimo (for kids) (Main site)

QubeOS (privacy) (Main site)

Sabayon Linux

Scientific Linux (SL) [scientific tools]

Security-Enhanced Linux (Home Page)

Sidux (Main Site)

Slackware (Docs)

SuSe (Novell) (MainSite) (openSUSE)

Tails (The Amnesic Incognito Live System; privacy distro) (MainSite)

TinyMe (mini-PCLinuxOS) (main site)

Xandros (Main Site) (Forums) (Docs) (wiki book) (wiki book) (is/was ??? xandros resources)

Ubuntu (Main Site) (Forums) (Ubuntu, Launchpad and PPA; 11/16/10)

Vector (Course: Vector Linux)

WOW! (senior) (linux software & hardware for seniors)

Yoper (Main Site)

Zenwalk Linux! [successor of Minislack] (Main Site)

ZevenOS (Main Site)


Buy places (commercial;; Linux/BSD/Solaris iso + books) (commercial; Geeks; hardware/media; not linux-specific) (commercial; Tiger Direct; hardware; not linux-specific) (commercial; Meritline; hardware/media; not linux-specific) (commercial; Always Innovating; hardware/miniature; not linux-specific)

Linux pre-installed vendors (desktops, servers, laptops, tablets) (listing) (listing) (commercial; Purism; qubeos preinstalled; laptop; privacy) (non-commercial; Black Lab pre-installed) (commercial; Open Sense Solutions; public [library] desktop, consultant) (commercial; Los Alamos Computers; high-end workstation and laptop) -> desktops (ommercial; eRacks; server, desktop, laptop) (commercial; Symple PC; desktop) (commercial; IBEXPC; desktop, workstation) (commercial: Linux Computer Systems; server, workstation) (commercial; system76; server, desktop, laptop) (commercial; Amnet Computers; server, workstation) (commercial; ASA Computers; server) (commercial; ASL; server, workstation) (commercial; Emperor Linux; high-end laptop) (commercial; Game PC; high-end server, desktop, laptop) (commercial; groovix/open sense solutions; public [library] desktop, consultant) (commercial; Linux Certified; laptop, service) (commercial; Linux Loft; service) (commercial; SW Technology; server, desktop, laptop) (commercial; pogo linux; server, workstation) (commercial;; server, desktop) (commercial; SCR online; service) (commercial; Alvio) (commercial; Cosmos Engineering; desktop, laptop, service) (commercial; Zonbu; desktop; 15W, $99 + 2 years subscription) (commercial; fit-pc; mini-desktop) (commercial; Devon IT; server, software) (commercial; NorhTec; mostly servers + a desktop and a netbook) (commercial; ink-media; netbook) (commercial; zareason; server, desktop, laptop) (commercial: Shuttle; desktop) (commercial; The Linux Laptop; laptop) (commercial: BookPC; mini-desktop) (commercial: Linutopq; mini-desktop) (commercial: LimePC; server, desktop, tablet) (VIA Technologies; server, mini-PC) (commercial; Sharp & Tappin Technology Ltd; PicoPC; mini-desktop) (commercial: LinPC; desktop, laptop) (commercial: Think Penguin; desktop, laptop) (commercial: Eight Virtues; desktop) (commercial; Trim-Slice; mini-computers) (commercial; Utilite; mini-computers) (commercial; tabeo; kid-friendly tablet) (commercial:; Vivaldis [KDE] tablet) (commercial: Think Penquin; Linux Mint desktop & notebook) (commercial; CompuLab; mini-PC) (commercial; CuBox; mini-PC); GIGABYTE; DIY) (commercial; CuBox-i; pre-sale as of 10/30/13) (commercial; APLEX Technology; box PC, tablet, embedded system [ includes window OS]) (commercial; DMP Electronics Inc.; embedded) (commercial; AAEON Technology, Inc.; embedded + others) (commercial; PQ Labs; Multi-Touch Screens) (commercial; entegra technologies, inc.; tablet) (commercial; AAEON Technology, Inc; tablet, embeddee) (commercial: Libiquity; "FSF" laptop) (commercial: Pinebook; laptop) (commercial: Alpha; laptop, mini-desktop) (commercial: Endless Computers; mini-desktop) (commercial: Psychsoftpc) (list of linux netbooks)
See netbook (at the bottom) for more

Netbook (mostly ASUS eee laptop) (ASUS eee "directory") (eee forum) (eee wiki) (register) eee model comparasion table) (eee applet; ACPI) (commercial; StarTech; search for asus eee; retailer) (commercial;; search for asus eee; retailer)> (commercial; MicroCenter; search for eeel retailer) (commercial;; search for asus eee; retailer) (commercial; J&R; search for asus eee; retailer) (commercial; Milwaukee PC; search for asus eee; retailer) (commercial; Costco; search for asus eee; retailer) (commercial; mobileplanet; search for asus eee; retailer) (commercial; crucil; upgrade memory)
TARGET="_blank"> ( 12 great Linux operating systems for netbooks; 12/20/12)

Cheap mini-size linux computers (Mini PC Android/Linux(Linaro) A10 Chip 1GB DDR3 RAM (Oval Elephant)) (Via's APC, a $49 Android desktop computer, goes on sale this summer; sorry no VIA's link as of 8/4/12) (Mini X TV Box runs Android, Linux for under $100; if you want this, hunt for it) (Linux distributions that can run on an MK802 Mini PC) (Hackberry A10 Developer Board) (Hackberry A10 Developer Board) (APC; android PC) (Great Wall U310) (commercial; Cubieboard) (commercial; PengPod; tablets & mini-PCs) (commercial; AAEON; AEC-6401 price?)

Tablets (Five open source alternatives to the iPad; 4/4/10) (CD's Tegra 2-powered Gemini is the most feature-complete tablet we've seen yet; 4/6/10) (commercial; PengPod; tablets & mini-PCs)

Other linux-related stuffs

Christianity (non-commercial; BibleTime; bible program) (non-commercial; Xiphos [was GNOMESword]; bible program) (modules for BibleTime & Xiphos - forget Sword, a window program)
(non-commercial; BPBible) (news + blogs + other links) (ChristianSource and Linux for Christians; mailing list) (Bible links) (non-commercial; GTK-PERL BIBLE) (non-commercial; BibleMemorizer) (commercial; eBible; free ad supported & paid non-ad; mobile bible program) (non-commercial; Bible Desktop) (non-commercial; Diatheke; CLI bible) (non-commercial; Bibledit) (CHADDB [Database]) (ChurchInfo [Database]) (Heal Your Church Website; 6/17/11) (Olive Tree; mobile bible) (KJV mobile bible) (12/8/10) (non-commercial; OpenLP [projector software]) (non-commercial; Caravel [Content Management])

Email (How to check if an email address really exists; 8/26/16)
Email Server

Logos (Linux 2.0 Penguins)

Mac (runs linux) (non-commercial; Mac-on-Linux)

Searching (non-commercial; Catfish; file search)

Smartwatch (non-commercial; AsteroidOS)

Software Repository (KDE) (KDE) (GNOME) (rpm & deb files) (GitHub) (Autopackage) (Linux Software) (FSF/UNESCO Free Software Directory) ( (Linux App Finder)

Web Hosting (free; TuxFamily)

Window (runs linux) (non-commercial; Cooperative Linux)

Vision (Linux Weather Forecast)


General (Advanced Linux Programming; download) (10 programming languages that could shake up IT; 1/3/12) (Alice; innovative 3D programming environment) (Codecademy) (LiveCode; beginner programming) (various programming languages) (commercial; Cloud9 IDE; collabarative coding) (code academy; HTML & CSS, Javascript, jQuery, Python, Ruby, PHP) (Simple Tutorials; HTML & CSS, Javascript, VIM, Python, etc) (Code Review: A Beginner's Guide to Computer Programming and Web Development)

Apache (Main Site) (Apache CookbookMain Site) (docs)

BASIC (non-commercial; XBasic) (commercial, but free Personal Edition; KBASIC) (commercial; Phoenix) (commercial; REALbasic)

Blog (How To Host Your Own Blog Or Website With WordPress; 12/5/15)

C (gcc Main Site) (minGW main site; cross-platform) (non-commercial; Anjuta; C/C++ editor) (lcc-win32 for window OS) (non-commercial; Open Watcom) (Introduction to C)

C++ (non-commercial; Anjuta; C/C++ editor) (non-commercial; Open Watcom) (Master C++ Programming with Free Open-Source Books; 2/16/17)

FORTRAN (including 77/90/95) (GFortran) (g77) (Fortran 77 Notes) (Professional Programmer's Guide to Fortran77) (Information about running Fortran codes under Linux) (Free Fortran Compilers) (non-commercial; Photran - An Integrated Development Environment for Fortran) (non-commercial; Open Watcom) (Guide to Fortran 90) (Photran - An Integrated Development Environment for Fortran) (Open Watcom) (g95) (Fortran Numerical Recipes [F77 & F90]; online book) (Interactive Fortran 77; online book) (FORTRAN 90: Formatted Input/Output; fall 2014)

HTML (including CSS; see Websites) (manuals) (reference) (tutorial) (cheatsheat) (Directory including tutorial) (HTML for beginners; tutorial) (WRITING HTML; tutorial) (HTML5 - A tutorial for beginners; tutorial) (HTML Cheat Sheet) (color palette) (HTML Color Chart/Picker) (text -> html) (text -> html) (commercial; html -> pdf/ps) (W3C standards) (HTML, CSS, Dreamweaver, Symfony tutorials) (A Word on Web Design: Resource Guide for Beginners) (Dart: Build HTML5 Apps Fast; 7/15/12) (CSS Tutorial) ( (Introduction to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS))
(non-commercial; JS Bin; collabarative JS/HTML/CSS) (non-commercial; ICEcoder; open-source browser code editor) (commercial, but free signup; Codeanywhere; collabarative HTML, PHP, JavaScript, CSS, and XML) (various programming languages) (HTML Codes - Table of ascii characters and symbols) (ASCII Code - The extended ASCII table)> (ASCII Table and Description) (List of Unicode characters) (How To Create a Custom 404 Page) (HTML5test) (Web Development & Design 101) (Browser Sandbox - Run any browser online, including Chrome, Firefox, IE 8, IE 9, IE 10, and IE 11, and more.) (HTML Cheat Sheet (with new HTML5 tags)) (Get to Grips with HTML with Free Books; 6/14/17) (HTML Symbols)

HTTPS (Interview with Daniel Roesler, UtilityAPI, Why every website should switch to HTTPS; 8/21/15) (Free HTTPS certs for all - Let's Encrypt opens doors to world+dog; 12/3/15) (Getting started with Let's Encrypt SSL Certificates on Ubuntu; 2/1/16) (Generate SSL Certificates With LetsEncrypt on Debian Linux; 1/31/17) (How to use Let's Encrypt to secure your websites; 9/19/17) (How to configure Nginx with free Let's Encrypt SSL certificate on Debian or Ubuntu Linux; 9/2/16)

Java (New to Java programming) (various programming languages)

JavaScript (non-commercial; JSFiddle)
(non-commercial; JS Bin; collabarative JS/HTML/CSS) (commercial, but free signup; Codeanywhere; collabarative HTML, PHP, JavaScript, CSS, and XML) (The 15 Best JavaScript Charting Libraries) (JavaScript All the Way Down; 4/9/15)


PDF (commercial; Evince) (non-commercial; XPDF) (non-commercial; online viewer) (non-commercial; MuPDF) (non-commercial; Okular; for KDE) (non-commercial; zathura) (non-commercial; PDFCreator) (non-commercial; text2pdf) (commercial, but free 1MB; converts to PDF and others) (CUPS-PDF) (Using PDF in Linux) (non-commercial; PDFsam; split and merge)

PHP (non-commercial; PHProjekt; Project Management System)

Postscript (ghostscript/gsvies) (non-commercial; online viewer)

Python (Learn to program by making computer games) (Learn Python the Hard Way [online book]) (Learn Python: A Beginner's Guide to Python) (Django) (Learn Python Fundamentals; 12/20/16)

RPM (creating) (Roll Your Own RPM) (Creating RPMs)

Ruby (RubyGem; Ruby add-on) (Black Bytes; programmer blog, but mostly Ruby)

Scratch (children programming language) (Main Site)

Websites (creating)

Wiki (DokuWiki Manual) (DokuWiki Directory)

My computer geek score is greater than 51% of all people in the world! How do you compare? Click here to find out! I am nerdier than 75% of all people. Are you a nerd? Click here to find out!
[1] About this webpage and logos